Inductive and deductive approaches to research

Inductive and deductive approaches to research

The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data.

A deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis, whilst an inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study.

For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective.

Inductive approaches are generally associated with qualitative research, whilst deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research. However, there are no set rules and some qualitative studies may have a deductive orientation.

One specific inductive approach that is frequently referred to in research literature is grounded theory, pioneered by Glaser and Strauss.

This approach necessitates the researcher beginning with a completely open mind without any preconceived ideas of what will be found. The aim is to generate a new theory based on the data.

Once the data analysis has been completed the researcher must examine existing theories in order to position their new theory within the discipline.

Grounded theory is not an approach to be used lightly. It requires extensive and repeated sifting through the data and analysing and re-analysing multiple times in order to identify new theory. It is an approach best suited to research projects where there the phenomena to be investigated has not been previously explored.

The most important point to bear in mind when considering whether to use an inductive or deductive approach is firstly the purpose of your research; and secondly the methods that are best suited to either test a hypothesis, explore a new or emerging area within the discipline, or to answer specific research questions.

Has this post helped you? If so then please leave a comment!  

See also: Using Conceptual Frameworks in Qualitative Research

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141 thoughts on “Inductive and deductive approaches to research

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  • September 13, 2013 at 4:30 am
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    Hi, yes the explanation was helpful because it was simple to read and pretty much, straight to the point. It has given me a brief understanding for what I needs.
    Thanks — Chantal

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  • October 12, 2013 at 8:23 am
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    thank you so much for the information. it was simple to read and also brief concise and straight to the point. thank you.

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  • October 14, 2013 at 5:47 pm
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    Deborah, thanks for this elaboration. but I am asking is it possible to conduct a deductive inclined research and also generate a theory, or add to the theory. I have been asked by my supervisor whether I am just testing hypothesi or my aim is to contribute/generate a theory. my studies is more of a quantitative nature. Thanks

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    • October 14, 2013 at 6:25 pm
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      Deductive research is more aimed towards testing a hypothesis and therefore is an approach more suited to working with quantitative data. The process normally involves reproducing a previous study and seeing if the same results are produced. This does not lend itself to generating new theories since that is not the object of the research. Between inductive and deductive approaches there is also a third approach which I will write a post on shortly – abdductive.

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      • November 30, 2016 at 6:06 pm
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        Dear Deborah, it has been very long time since you posted this article. However, I can testify that it is very helpful for a novis reseracher like me. 

        Reply
  • October 22, 2013 at 1:20 am
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    Thank u for the information, it really helps me.

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    • October 29, 2013 at 6:48 pm
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      Exactly, your work is simple and clear, that there are two research approaches, Inductive and deductive.Qualitative and Quantative approaches
      You gave clear differences in a balance, simple to understand, I suppose you are a teacher by profession.
       
      This is how we share knowledge,and you become more knowledgable

      Reply
      • October 30, 2013 at 9:00 am
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        Thank you Lambawi, I am glad that these posts are proving useful. I will endeavour to add some more in the coming weeks!

        Reply
  • November 5, 2013 at 7:00 pm
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    This has been helpful. thanks for posting

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  • November 27, 2013 at 1:14 pm
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    Thank you very much for sharing knowledge with me. It really much helpful while preparing my college exam. Thank –:)

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  • December 12, 2013 at 11:16 pm
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    Thank you ever so much for making it simple and easily understandable. Would love to see more posts.

    Best wishes

    Molla

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  • January 8, 2014 at 7:30 am
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    The explanation is simple and easy to understand it has helped to a lot thank you

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  • January 26, 2014 at 6:30 am
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    very helpful and explained simply. thanks

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  • January 27, 2014 at 1:07 am
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    Explanation is simple…. it was a great help for my exam preparation.

    Reply
  • February 19, 2014 at 4:25 pm
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    Excellent presentation please!

    Reply
  • March 3, 2014 at 9:46 am
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    Very helpful information and a clear, simple explanation. Thank you

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  • March 10, 2014 at 6:24 am
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    Thanks; this has been helpful in preparation for my forthcoming exams

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  • March 17, 2014 at 5:21 am
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    This is fantastic, I have greatly beneffitted from this straight forward illustration

    Reply
  • March 18, 2014 at 11:25 am
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    Thanks…i will benifited to read this

    Reply
  • March 20, 2014 at 12:19 pm
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    Thanks for your help. Keep it like that so that will be our guide towards our destinations.

    Reply
  • March 22, 2014 at 12:29 pm
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    Thank-you for your academic insights.

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  • March 26, 2014 at 12:55 pm
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    Thank you for your clarification. Well understood.

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  • April 26, 2014 at 11:27 am
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    Hi, I had a question would you call process tracing technique an inductive or deductive approach? or maybe both? Hope you can help me with the same.

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  • May 11, 2014 at 6:11 pm
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    Preparing for my Research Methods exams and I'm grateful for your explanations. This is a full lecture made simple. Thank you very much.

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  • May 14, 2014 at 8:48 pm
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    I am very thankful for this information, madam you are just good. If you are believer, allow me to say, May God bless you with more knowledge and good health.

    Reply
    • May 15, 2014 at 7:03 am
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      Hi Rasol, glad that the post was useful and  – yes – I am a believer so thank you for the blessing!

      Reply
      • May 9, 2015 at 11:29 am
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        Dear Deborah 

        I am currently doing Btech in forensic with Unisa would you be so kind and help with this question below and may I use your services while Iam doing this degree Please 

        Hi I have question that goes like these "If the reseacher wanted to conduct reseach in a specific context to see whether it supports an establisblished theory" the reseacher would be conducting 

        1. case study 

        2. deductive research 

        3. exploratory resarch 

        4. inductive methods 

        please help me to choose the right one 

        Yours Faithfully 

        Baba Temba 

        Reply
        • May 16, 2015 at 6:03 pm
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          Deductive, which is not exploratory but designed to test a hypothesis. So this is unlike to be case study research but a quantitative study.

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          • August 4, 2017 at 7:57 am
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            Hi Deborah, I have been struggling with my research methods proposal, in finding the right methodology for my study.  This is the only explanation out of all the books that I have read which really enables me to truly understand the meaning of Grounded Theory for which you describe as an inductive.  I just would like to say thank you for your explanation as this has helped me in a way, which I thought I would never get. 
            Thank you
            Destini 

  • May 21, 2014 at 5:10 pm
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    Very useful piece of information. Thank you!  

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  • May 22, 2014 at 1:22 pm
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    Very impressing work, may god bless you with more mighty knowledge.

    Reply
  • May 22, 2014 at 8:02 pm
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    In fact this has been very usefull information for me in my research,. It's very clear and easy to understand looking at the choice of language ,etc God bless you!!

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  • May 23, 2014 at 12:23 am
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    Is it possible to use deductive approach in research concerning what has happened in an industry?

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  • May 23, 2014 at 4:46 pm
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    Thank you very much this information has been extremely helpful. I can now progress with my dissertation. 

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  • May 29, 2014 at 9:47 am
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    Thanks for that good work Deborah. It has taken me quite a short time to read and understand. Kindly please help me understand what am required to write in this case where my teacher gave me this question: "Explain the process of deduction and induction research approaches".

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  • June 8, 2014 at 12:57 pm
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    Thank you very much.

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  • June 23, 2014 at 9:32 am
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    Good work Deborah.

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  • August 4, 2014 at 11:00 am
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    Thank you so much!! The distinction between the two approaches is clear and concise. Most other websites tend to go into long discussions without really getting to the point. This was very helpful. 

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  • August 14, 2014 at 10:34 pm
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    Thank you , useful explanation

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  • August 28, 2014 at 9:57 am
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    It is a very fruitful post. I would like to ask if the objective of my research is to develop an extended process from the existing processes. And I am going to use qualitative and quantitative research methods, because my research phenomenon requires to study the individual meanings and perceptions and then uses the findings from the qualitative study and also the theoretical study as inputs for the quantitative study. Finally, I will use the findings of the theoretical study and the quantitative study in developing the extended process. So, which approach to follow in this case?

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    • September 3, 2014 at 1:24 pm
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      Dear Tamer, Your question is too hypothetical for me to offer a response. But in any event, you are the only one who can decide whether an inductive or deductive approach is appropriate for your research project. This is where methodology comes in – which is about determining what research methods will be most effective in answering your research questions and which are in sync with your approach (e.g. critical, feminist etc). 

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  • August 30, 2014 at 5:41 pm
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    Thanks much! 

    What do you think about the approach with quantitative analyses that start with data to generate theories? Typically data mining techniques fit into my example. 

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    • September 3, 2014 at 1:30 pm
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      This is a question of methodology – research methods must be selected based on the discipline, research questions and approach to the study. For example, If you are seeking to ascertain how many people read the news on their smartphones then a quantitiative method is most appropriate. On the other hand. if you are seeking to delve into why some people read the news on their smartphones, then clearly a qualitative method is required.

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  • September 14, 2014 at 7:17 am
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    What if I’m using secondary sources? Which would be more appropriate qualitative or quantitative?

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    • September 15, 2014 at 10:34 am
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      The question of inductive or deductive approaches arise only in relation to ‘primary’ research – that is when you are undertaking your own study. In your own study, secondary sources would appear under a Literature Review. However, if you are doing a dissertation, say for an undergraduate degree where you are not undertaking primary research then inductive or deductive approaches are not applicable. I hope this clarifies.

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  • September 15, 2014 at 8:05 pm
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    Your comments are really good and easy to understand. Hope to contact you for my project.
    keep up the good work. thank you

    Reply
  • September 20, 2014 at 1:36 am
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    The last paragraph stated ‘The most important point to bear in mind when considering whether to use an inductive or deductive approach is firstly the purpose of your research; and secondly the methods that are best suited to either test a hypothesis, explore a new or emerging area within the discipline, or to answer specific research questions. However my question is if my research is about answering specific research questions in a qualitative research. Am I to use the inductive or the deductive or the mixture of the two?

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    • September 21, 2014 at 8:42 pm
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      Hi Ola, if your research questions are qualitatively focused – that is seeking to find out the whys and the hows as opposed to ‘what’ and ‘how many’ then certainly an inductive approach is most appropriate. This is because inductive aims to find new theories emerging from the data whereas deductive is centred on testing a hypothesis rather than exploring research questions.

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  • October 2, 2014 at 9:28 pm
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    Points of distinction top notch. Absolutely fantastic. Straight to the point. Was really helpful. Keep up the good work.

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  • October 8, 2014 at 6:14 am
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    Thanks for the inforation Deborah. It was  useful

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  • October 26, 2014 at 5:22 pm
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    Thank you so much, this was something I was never able to grasp so well! I found this site while searching the difference between the two on Google. I am a PHD Scholar, now it seems I will be visiting this site frequently and seeking your help 🙂

    Reply
  • October 27, 2014 at 10:37 am
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    Hi Deborah. Thank you for the input.It clearly exemplifies the difference. In your response to one of the questions, you have highlighted a lot of 'what'  will qualify the research as quantitative. I have developed 4 research questions, 3 are on 'what's and 1 'why'. The what is because my sample of analysis is multimodal text. Will my study still fall under qualitative? Thank you in advance, Deborah. I appreciate it very much. 

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    • October 27, 2014 at 12:18 pm
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      Hi Zilla, It is hard to provide a definitive answer without knowing what your research questions are (although time does not permit me to provide individual responses). So I will reiterate that the question of whether to adopt an inductive or deductive approach to a research project is relevant for ‘primary’ research – that is, research that you undertake yourself. Factors that influence your decision should rest on whether you are seeking to explore the ‘whys’ and ‘hows’ of human experience, generating new levels or understanding or simply wish to test a hypothesis or use a large sample in order to generalise results to the wider population. You say that your sample is multimodal text – that is simply text plus media such as videos, pictures etc. My question to you is whether this multimodal text has been generated from primary research – i.e interviews you conducted, photos you took and/or videos that you filmed of research subjects? If that is the case then I would presume that this would be a qualitative research project that would lend itself to an inductive approach,since I cannot imagine that you would be able to work with a very large sample of multimodal text. If the multimodal text is not generated from your own primary resesarch then this is secondary research that might be included in your literature review but would fall outside the scope of your analysis.

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  • October 27, 2014 at 12:28 pm
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    Thanks a lot for showing me the best way to understand the basic difference between two approaches of research.

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    • November 8, 2014 at 8:09 am
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      Dear Aliyu, time does not permit me to provide responses on your individual projects. Therefore, my aim is to equip you with the understanding of different approaches so that you have both the confidence and competence to make appropriate decisions on the most suitable methodological approaches to your research.

      Reply
  • October 27, 2014 at 4:17 pm
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    Beautiful stuff you are giving us Deborah.

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  • October 30, 2014 at 8:30 am
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    Deborah, thank you so much for your explanation, I'm clear now.

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  • November 3, 2014 at 5:35 pm
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    I am gathering quantitative data to develop a model to represent the behavior of a material using an existing model. I subsequently used this model to simulate the material behavior with a computer program. this is a reversal approach to previour reaeasch in these area. usually the computer simulation is used to obtain quantitative data without experiment. Could you please kindly let me know what is my reasearch method Thanks

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  • November 6, 2014 at 4:01 pm
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    Dr, your explanation about inductive research and deductive, is meaningful to postgraduate students. What is your suggestion on my research topic: use of handset by primary six pupils for games, rather for home works and readings, what is the research approach that will be suitable?

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  • November 16, 2014 at 4:32 pm
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    Very brief and well explained. Thank you Deborah.

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  • November 30, 2014 at 5:58 am
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    Thank you Dr. Gabriel, good informationl; will come back. 

    Reply
  • December 17, 2014 at 9:25 pm
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    It has actually helped – a similar question was asked last year in my schools,that prompted me to search for it while preparing for my exam. Today the same question appeared and I used your explanation as my response to the question. Thanks.

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  • January 8, 2015 at 5:09 pm
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    Hi Deborah, your explanations are comprehensible. I understand this topic thanks to you. May I ask you question? What are  the similarities between inductive and deductive reasoning?

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    • January 12, 2015 at 4:06 pm
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      That’s like asking what the similarities are between quantitative and qualitative research! Focus on what your research objectives are and then choose the approach that will be most efefctive in meeting these objectives. 

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  • January 10, 2015 at 9:30 pm
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    Thanks so much
    Have got what I really want here

    Reply
  • February 4, 2015 at 6:01 pm
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    Enlightening facts. Thank you.

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  • February 23, 2015 at 2:17 pm
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    Thanks Deborah for the explanation but, i want to ask if descriptive is inductive or deductive approach? God bless you

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  • March 1, 2015 at 12:33 pm
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    it is really good explanation

    thank you

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  • March 1, 2015 at 12:41 pm
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    Can I ask one question? I am going to research how technology is changing the hotel industry particularly at the hotel front desk so is that inductive or deductive approach? I believe deductive approach because the aim of my research is to investigate current used technology at hotel front desk. So what do you think please let me know Thank you very much indeed.

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  • March 2, 2015 at 8:43 am
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    The information provide is quite helpful, thanks after all….

    Reply
  • March 7, 2015 at 4:24 am
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    I was confused about these approaches but your information has helped me a lot – reasonable and authentic.

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  • March 17, 2015 at 7:05 am
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    I've got the answers,thx.

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  • March 30, 2015 at 11:20 pm
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    It is very clear and concise.

    Reply
  • April 29, 2015 at 9:42 am
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    Thank you, it was right on point.

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  • May 4, 2015 at 12:26 pm
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    Thank you, I used this solution for my assignment.

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  • May 9, 2015 at 7:15 am
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    Thank you so much Deborah. I am currently doing my dissertation and most of my lecturers have recommeded us to use Research Methods for Business Students by Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill. I have found the book very hard to understand especially when I'm wrtiting up the methodology section as I have to talk about deductive and inductive approaches.  You have simplified it and explained it well. Also you have made it so so easy to understand. Everyone should be reading this. Thank you so so, so much.

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  • May 21, 2015 at 9:51 am
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    Thank you D now I am aware of these two!

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  • May 28, 2015 at 12:16 pm
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    I found it so easy to understand the difference between deductive theory and inductive- it's so helpful. Many Thanks. 

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  • June 7, 2015 at 5:49 am
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    Deborah, your work is precise,well organized and relevant.Thank you very much.

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  • June 23, 2015 at 12:15 pm
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    Thanks for the explanation, it has cleared my doubts. 

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  • July 14, 2015 at 4:00 pm
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    Thanks Dr. Deb, I am satisfied – it was really useful.

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  • August 8, 2015 at 9:41 am
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    Hi Doc, thank you for making things simpler for me. I will always be incontact with your website. Stay forever blessed. 

    Reply
  • August 17, 2015 at 11:43 am
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    Thank you for the information. It really helps me.

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  • September 7, 2015 at 4:14 pm
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    Hi Deborah, i just went through the abductive approach which is combination of inductive and deductive Approach. I found it a little confusing when I tried to know by my own from e sources. But after going through the conversation in this page helped me a lot. Thank u very much. If u can share your email I can share my report made for my pre PhD comprehensive viva. My profession is teaching and my area of research is International HRM. Title is Knowledge and Learning Model among effective repatriation. If anybody is doing reserach in the same area, plse feel free to reach me at madhubk.mba08@gmail.com. Thank u all again

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  • September 9, 2015 at 11:38 am
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    Thx for the information.

    Reply
  • September 25, 2015 at 11:11 am
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    Hi Deborah Thank you very much for the article. it is informative. My question is what approach am i supposed to take if i am doing a research that is both qualitative and quantitative. I am doing research on the feasibility of establishing renewable energy systems in a developing country. I am using a simulation software to generate a model to analyse the technical and economic data (Quantitative) but i have to use interviews to capture social and polical views from industry experts (Qualitative). So which approach is best in such a scenario? Thank you

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    • September 25, 2015 at 1:28 pm
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      Hi Thuba,

      In a mixed methods study, the quanitiative dimension of the study usually functions to capture preliminary data, with the qualitative dimension being the primary method that answers the research questions. In any case, in a mixed methods study you must peform both quantitative and qualitative data analysis – separately. In reference to your specifc study you need to refer back to your reearch questions and the aims and objectives of your study. Is your primary objective to develop a model for a renewable energy system or is it to determine whether industry experts see the viability of the model? If it is the latter then the approach should be inductive. I would advise you to consult your supervisor or someone in your discipline, as I am not an engineer.

       

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  • October 1, 2015 at 8:50 pm
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    Very informative.

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  • October 5, 2015 at 3:33 am
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    Your explaination of inductive & deductive approaches to research is clear to understand. 

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  • November 6, 2015 at 11:44 am
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    Your explanation of concepts is succint and easily conceivable. Helpful.

    Reply
  • November 9, 2015 at 12:19 pm
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    Thank you so much Deborah. I am currently writing my research on resource curse theory and I will like to have your private mail for private discussions. Thank you

    Reply
    • November 9, 2015 at 3:50 pm
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      No problem – you can use the contact form and your message will go directly to my email address.

      Reply
  • February 6, 2016 at 4:56 pm
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    Thanks for differentiating the two in easy and pragmetic manner.

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  • April 24, 2016 at 5:49 pm
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    Thank you Deborah, that was a simple, clear explanation helpful for sure.

    Regards,

    Reply
    • May 3, 2016 at 12:19 am
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      I like the way you simplified everything,was really helpful for my assignment. Please how do I reference this work? Thank you

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      • May 10, 2016 at 3:59 pm
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        Reference it as an online source:

        Gabriel,D.(2013). Inductive and deductive approaches to research. Avaolable from: http://deborahgabriel.com/2013/03/17/inductive-and-deductive-approaches-to-research/  

        Reply
  • May 10, 2016 at 2:24 pm
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    Thank you Deborah, this is very helpful to me and others.

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  • May 16, 2016 at 10:10 am
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    Great insight, simple and clear; I now get the difference thanks for sharing.

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  • May 30, 2016 at 3:39 am
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    Thanks for the very good explanation and comparison.

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  • June 29, 2016 at 9:00 am
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    A very simple and straightforward guidance to students. 

    Reply
  • July 27, 2016 at 1:39 pm
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    Hi Debrah , It is really interesting to get valuable points from your statments about deductive reasoning. However it seems short . It will be helpful for us if you write more. Thanks

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    • July 27, 2016 at 3:30 pm
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      Dear Almaz, thank you for your feedback. The post was only intended to provide a brief overview of the subject – to better understand inductive and deductive approaches to research I strongly recommend immersing yourself in the available literature. 

      Reply
  • August 2, 2016 at 10:58 am
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    Perhaps, you can suggest 1 or 2 widely cited scholars (to read) that argue that deductive approaches can also be used in a qualitative methodology which is interpretive/subjective in nature.

    Thank you once again!

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  • August 14, 2016 at 9:35 am
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    You are definitely on point.

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  • August 25, 2016 at 12:46 pm
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    Thank you so much.

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  • September 13, 2016 at 10:40 pm
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    Thank you so much Deborah.

    Reply
  • September 19, 2016 at 3:35 pm
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    Such inspiring work.

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  • September 19, 2016 at 3:38 pm
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    Your literature is helping us a lot here at the Ivory Tower Makerere University Kampala Uganda.

    Reply
  • October 22, 2016 at 3:57 pm
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    Hi Deborah. I am Iftikhar from United Arab Emirates (UAE).  I am conducting a research on learning preferences of Generation Z youth, and one of my research questions is "What are the learning preferences of UAE Gen Z youth and how matching of L&D program delivery with these learning preferences affect Gen Z interest in organizational L&D programs?"  Now as for existing literature, a lot has already been written on this but in the West; there is practically no formal research literature available on this topic in UAE.  Therefore, I am taking the Western literature outcomes and applying these in UAE context to see the results. My questions are: a. Will this research be treated as "Deductive' or "Inductive"? b.  Should I choose 'Quantitative" or "Qualitative' approach? Wishing you all the best.  

    Reply
  • November 3, 2016 at 10:04 am
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    Thanks Deborah. but I'm confused. You said deductive approach is used in quantitative research and it test a theory and inductive approach is used in qualitative research to generate a theory. So what is grounded theory?

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  • November 7, 2016 at 3:09 pm
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    Thanks a lot for such a good explanation, Deborah!

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  • December 14, 2016 at 11:18 pm
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    Thank you very much. It was simple to understand.

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  • January 1, 2017 at 10:05 pm
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    Lovely….this was very helpful…simple and straightforward. 

    Reply
  • January 15, 2017 at 8:21 am
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    Thanks. It is so useful. Best Regards.

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  • January 24, 2017 at 3:19 am
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    This has been troubling me for a while. It is often said that the interpretive paradigm typically goes with inductive approaches and methods involving observation, interviews and research into archives. But then if concepts are to emerge from the data without theoretical preconceptions, how come it is often said that the research design, choice of case studies, and initial coding in thematic analysis can be theory driven? Wouldn’t that make the approach deductive (i.e. about testing theory). Or, how does theory coming before the research design fit with an inductive approach? In my experience so far authors seem to evade this point.

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  • January 25, 2017 at 6:53 am
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    HALLO D! I REALLY LIKE YOUR WORK IT REALLY HELPED ME IN MY RESEARCH.

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  • January 28, 2017 at 4:59 am
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    Thank You so very much Deborah. I really got to uncover what puzzled me on deductive versus inductive approaches.

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  • February 25, 2017 at 7:17 am
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    Thanks Dr.Gabriel. It was very simple and useful. Now I understood the differecne b/w deductive and inductive method.  

    Reply
  • March 31, 2017 at 11:23 am
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    Thanx for sharing with us. It is very useful for my dissertation.  Your topic clarifies the difference between inductive and deductive research.

    Reply
  • April 3, 2017 at 6:39 am
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    Hi Dr.Gabriel, I am doing a research to apply a theory into service industry which is more commonly practiced in manufacturing industry ( known as Lean approach), my aim is to apply this approach into banking operation, the objective is to find the elements/processes in the bank operation that actually increase the cost or decrease the service quality. If I want to conduct a research to find those elements in a bank operation. should I use Inductive approach? what is your advise?  Thanks 

    Reply
  • May 5, 2017 at 11:15 pm
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    Hi Deborah, Thank you for a great article! It made it very clear the differenece between deductive and inductive.  I'd like to ask you the following: – Is possible to have inductive study with hypotheses and use semi-structured interviews to answer these hypotheses and research questions?   thank you very much for your reply!   Alina

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    • May 10, 2017 at 9:50 am
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      Hi Alina, I’m glad my post has been useful for you. In answer to your question, I think maybe you are confusing research questions with hypotheses. Research questions guide the overall study and ensure that when designing interview questions – they are structured in the most effective way to elicit responses that address the research questions. Hypotheses are linked to deductive studies where researchers aim to test presumptions/predictions about phenomenon – this is not the same as research questions.

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  • May 18, 2017 at 3:12 pm
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    Hi Deborah Thanks for an intersting piece of work presented. Am kindly inquiring how i can get along with literature review and conceptual framemework on the topic 'IDPs and Solid Waste Management' and objectives; exploring everyday practice around solid waste management; finding out how social networks move and merge into new spaces for waste management and establish connections between waste management and social lfestyle. Thanks Hakimu

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  • May 20, 2017 at 9:10 pm
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    Hi Deborah thank you for a great article . I have a question for you I am doing my research work and I have some issue about theory construction. Basically I am a beginner in social research – I have no idea about constructing new theory. Please let me know about theory construction and what is a procedure  – how can I construct theory and also about steps of this method? I hope you will understand my words. Thank you.

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    • May 24, 2017 at 10:57 am
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      Dear Amna, Welcome to the world of research – we all have to start somewhere! If you're new to social research I would recommend you join the Social Research Association (SRA) who provide training and a wealth of resources for researchers. With regards to theory – unless you are researching new phenomena that has never been researched before or are developing a completely new approach (unlikely) you will not be creating 'new' theory with your research project. You will be using existing theory in your approach and embed theoretical perspectives into your methodology. You will also likely use relevant theories when analysing your data. However, before you think about theory you need to develop your methodology – see my other post: methods and methodology.

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  • May 29, 2017 at 7:39 pm
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    Thanks so much. This post was very helpful and easy to understand!

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  • June 4, 2017 at 12:59 pm
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    Hi Deborah, Thank you for the precise and helpful information .. I need your help as I feel a little bit confused. i am doing a case study of airline corporate image. it is the newest crisis scenario in my country related to our regional carrier. I think, i among the pioneers doing the case study research for this airline company. I used the conceptual framework from other previous conducted study. It was conducted in quantitative manner. If i used the conceptual framework as my guidance for my literature review and interview question construction, is that okay if i do not use inductive for the case study because i do not build a new theory. If i just compare and argue with the previous finding and the model used, is it consider as deductive approach in case study? Based on my reading, i found some researchers used deductive approach in their case study. they tested the hypotheses..but i just compare my finding with the model used from the previous research. For your information, i did documentation, direct observation and interview (trigulation) with ex-passengers and aviation expert. What do you think? .Please help me..i am stuck. Thank you

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  • June 18, 2017 at 3:01 pm
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    Thank you Doctor, it’s straightforward valuable piece of knowledge. It may require a little bit of referencing. Furthermore, adding citation line below will be useful for academic use.

    Thank you very much!

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