Whether you are writing a 2000-word literature review for an undergraduate dissertation or something closer to 10,000-words for a PhD thesis, the process is the same. So read my guide for some useful tips!
PART ONE – PREPARATION
Step 1: Be clear about the purpose of a literature review
- To demonstrate the depth of your knowledge in a particular field.
- To demonstrate your understanding of the key arguments and debates surrounding a specific topic.
- To demonstrate your understanding of key theories relating to the topic.
- To demonstrate your skills of critical analysis.
- To highlight gaps in existing research in the field.
Step 2: Clearly Identify your subject area and topic for your literature review
- Firstly develop your methodology and consider your conceptual approach to your study.
- Read widely first to help you decide on a specific area of inquir.y
- Once you have identified a specific area of inquiry then search for relevant literature to read in greater depth.
Step 3: Perform searches for relevant literature
- There are several ways of searching for literature which include: a physical search in your chosen library (always ask the librarian for assistance); online searches through a library service via discipline, subject, author or keywords and via search engines such as Google scholar.
- Use double quotation marks “…” in search engines to indicate whole phrases that may otherwise be separated during the search process and produce less relevant results.
PART TWO: READING
Step 4: Immerse yourself in the literature and make notes
- It is essential to make notes on the literature during the reading process which you can then use as the basis for your first draft.
- Be organised – I always create a new sub-folder for my literature review which sits within a main folder that bears the title of my study.
- Mind maps are useful for plotting out your proposed reading thematically.
- Reading thematically makes identifying key arguments and debates around a topic much easier than randomly selecting literature.
- When making notes in your word document, add the reference at the top of your sheet so that you can build your reference list during the reading process.
- Always write notes in your own words to avoid accidental plagiarism and where you copy quotes for use in the literature review add the citation to save having to go back and search for it later.
PART THREE: STRUCTURING THE LITERATURE REVIEW
Step 5: If you have followed the previous steps this should be straightforward!
- Organise the review thematically using sub-headings.
- Ensure you provide cited definitions for key terminology at the beginning of each section.
- Explain theoretical concepts clearly and use citations.
- Summarise the key arguments made by authors and explain differences or similarities between their positions.
- It is useful to group authors together who have made similar arguments which can be done using citations (e.g. ‘It is possible for bloggers to engage in discursive practices which are not overtly political (Kahn & Kellner 2004; Saleh, 2010; Steele, 2011’.)
- Write your review using active sentences and avoid passive writing (e.g. ‘X argues’ instead of ‘is argued…’).
- Make sure you end each section by highlighting any gaps in the literature.
- At the end of your literature review write a brief paragraph that summarises the key findings and lists the gaps in literature that your study will explore.
PART FOUR: CHECKING YOUR WORK
Step 6: proof-reading
- Don’t proof-read your work after you have just written it – sleep on it!
- Read through your work thoroughly the next day, when it will be easier to spot errors and tidy up your writing by re-phrasing sentences.
- Use appropriate terminology and avoid colloquialisms.
- Correct spelling errors and double-check you haven’t missed any citations.
- You should proof-read your work to-three times – not just once!
Lastly, go back to step 1. If you can tick everything off then you have written a great literature review!
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